4/5D Microscopy

An overview of Andor's solutions for 4/5D Microscopy

45D Microscopy
Image from 4D time-series of live neuron labeled with quantum dots. Courtesy Dr. Tom Blanpied, UMD.

The capability to perform rapid, multi-dimensional imaging of living cells or model organisms is becoming increasingly necessary in many areas of modern biological research. Much of fundamental biological phenomena (spanning development, repair, cancer, cell cycle, signalling, motility, intracellular transport and viral pathways), involve microscopic structures moving rapidly through 3D spatial dimensions.In order to capture these intricate, interactive processes effectively in "real time", we are required to perform rapid time-lapse imaging of the cell through all three spatial dimensions i.e. effectively 4D imaging.

Furthermore, since we commonly want to follow the motion and interactions of multiple intracellular structures, this often requires us to either simultaneously or very rapidly switch between, the excitation and imaging of several spectrally separated fluorophore labels i.e. 5D! Underlying all direct imaging studies of living cells or organisms, is the desire to preserve the live subject for as long as possible, through minimization of both phototoxic cell/tissue damage and photobleaching of the incorporated fluorophores. Techniques that may be employed for 5D cell imaging include spinning disk confocal microscopy, deconvolution widefield and structured illumination, all of which can benefit from using Electron Multiplying CCD technology. e.g. iXon EMCCD Camera.

45D Microscopy
Quantum Efficiency and Fluorescent Dyes relevant to 4/5D Microscopy

Andor's EMCCD technology is the ideal detector for incorporation into your ultrasensitive 4/D microscopy set-up, whether as a key component in our Revolution confocal live cell imaging system, or as a "stand-alone" EMCCD + iQ imaging software solution. The extraordinary signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio offered is significantly greater than that afforded by conventional point scan detectors. Furthermore, since it is a rapid-readout imaging device the EMCCD yields rapid frame rates, ideally suited to rapid acquisition of z-stacks and time-lapse sequences.The spectral dimension is accessed either through fast switching between multiple fluorophores, or even splitting of the emission signal simultaneously onto different areas of the sensor. There is also the possibility to perform true "spectral imaging" covered elsewhere in this catalogue. This is covered elsewhere within this section. Through minimization of excitation powers, the rates of dye photobleaching and cell phototoxicity are significantly reduced. iXon3 EMCCD Camera and Luca electron multiplying CCD imaging platforms each displays single photon sensitivity combined with high Quantum Efficiency (QE) at multi-MHz rapid readout speeds.

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Publications Database
Submicron thermal imaging of a nucleate boiling process using fluorescence microscopy
Evaluation of genetic damage in tobacco and arsenic exposed population of Southern Assam, India using buccal cytome assay and comet assay
Transient submicron temperature imaging based on the fluorescence emission in an Er/Yb co-doped glass–ceramic
Chloroquine-induced glioma cells death is associated with mitochondrial membrane potential loss, but not oxidative stress
Anisotropic stress orients remodelling of mammalian limb bud ectoderm
An in vitro model of tissue boundary formation for dissecting the contribution of different boundary forming mechanisms
Gap geometry dictates epithelial closure efficiency
The EHD protein Past1 controls postsynaptic membrane elaboration and synaptic function
Temporal sequence of activation of cells involved in purinergic neurotransmission in the colon
In vivo cell-cycle profiling in xenograft tumors by quantitative intravital microscopy
Direct interaction between centralspindlin and PRC1 reinforces mechanical resilience of the central spindle
The role of Ca2+ influx in spontaneous Ca2+ wave propagation in interstitial cells of Cajal from the rabbit urethra
A mouse model of human primitive neuroectodermal tumors resulting from microenvironmentally-driven malignant transformation of orthotopically transplanted radial glial cells.
Neuronal activity and AMPA-type glutamate receptor activation regulates the morphological development of oligodendrocyte precursor cells
Systematic imaging reveals features and changing localization of mRNAs in Drosophila development
Interkinetic Nuclear Migration Is Centrosome Independent and Ensures Apical Cell Division to Maintain Tissue Integrity
Functionalized fluorescent silver nanoparticle surfaces for novel sensing and imaging techniques
Cellular projections from sensory hair cells form polarity-specific scaffolds during synaptogenesis
Signal inhibition by a dynamically-regulated pool of mono-phosphorylated MAPK
Interphase centrosome organization by the PLP-Cnn scaffold is required for centrosome function

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