Dynamic Range and Full Well Capacity

A definition of CCD dynamic range

The dynamic range of a CCD is typically defined as the full-well capacity divided by the camera noise and relates to the ability of a camera to record simultaneously very low light signals alongside bright signals. The ratio is often expressed in decibels which is calculated as 20log (Full well capacity/read noise) or in the equivalent number of A/D units required to digitise the signal.

Camera Pixel Size µm2 Full Well Capacity e- Read noise e- Dynamic Range Decibels dB Bits Notes
iXon3 885 EMCCD
8 x 8 30000 20 (x3 pre-amp) 1500 64 11 EM Amplifier with No Gain (dynamic range higher with EM gain)
Luca S EMCCD
10 x 10 25000 15 1667 64 11 EM Amplifier with No Gain
iXon3 897 EMCCD
16 x 16/td> 180000 9 (x1 pre-amp) 20000 86 15 Conventional Amplifier @ 1MHz (dynamic range higher with alternative pre-amp)
Newton 920 CCD
26 x 26 510000 10 (x3 pre-amp) 51000 94 16 50kHz Readout Rate


The full well capacity is the largest charge a pixel can hold before saturation which results in degradation of the signal. When the charge in a pixel exceeds the saturation level, the charge starts to fill adjacent pixels, a process known as Blooming. The camera also starts to deviate from a linear response and hence compromises the quantitative performance of the camera. Larger pixels have lower spatial resolution but their greater well capacity offers higher dynamic range which can be important for some applications.

The table above shows the full well capacity and dynamic range of a small selection of cameras.


    Sign up for the Andor Newsletter!

    Receive articles like this one, product launches, press releases and more with our quarterly newsletter focusing on either Physical Science or Life Science. It's free to subscribe and you can opt out at any time.

    NAME EMAIL


    Physical ScienceLife ScienceSUBMIT